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Breeze Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation centre

Breeze Rehab Center Hyderabad

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

It is inflammatory disorder which affects in mainly nervous system, peripheral nervous system, cranial nervous system.

Broad spectrum of inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies has been identified.

GBS, or acute inflammatory demyelinating immune-mediated polyneuropathy, is the most common form of the disease.

GBS affects nerve roots and peripheral nerves, leading to motor neuropathy and flaccid paralysis with possible sensory and ANS effects. Purely motor forms and mixed motor and sensory forms of GBS have been identified.

Less common forms are acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy, which has a less positive prognosis (and which some consider to be a distinct type of peripheral neuropathy).

Miller-Fisher syndrome, with primarily cranial nerve symptoms, ataxia, and areflexia and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), which causes progressive or relapsing and remitting numbness and Weakness.

Types of Guillain-Barre Syndrome:

The main types are:
AIDP:__ Acquired inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.
AMAN:__Acute motor axonal neuropathy (or) Acute axonal neuropathy.
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), the most common form in North America and Europe. The most common sign of AIDP is muscle weakness that starts in the lower part of your body and spreads upward.

Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), in which paralysis starts in the eyes. MFS is also associated with unsteady gait. MFS is less common in the U.S. but more common in Asia.

Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) are less common in the U.S. But AMAN and AMSAN are more frequent in China.

Epidemiological studies show that males are affected by GBS twice as often as are females.

Approximately 27% of patients with GBS have no identified preceding illness; however, more than two thirds had symptoms of an infectious disease 2 weeks before the onset

In GBS the spinal roots and peripheral nerves are infiltrated with macrophages and T lymphocytes.

Macrophages then attack and strip the myelin sheaths. In milder cases of GBS the axons are left intact and the nerves are remyelinated, typically in a matter of weeks.

However, in some cases, the axons also degenerate, with recovery dependent on axonal regeneration from intact elements, which takes months and may be incomplete.

In acute axonal motor neuropathy, macrophages invade the axon directly, leaving the myelin intact.

The axonal loss is related to long-lasting or permanent muscle weakness. Because of damage to the myelin sheath, saltatory propagation of the action potential is disturbed, resulting in slowed conduction velocity.

Signs & Symptoms of Guillain-Barre Syndrome may include:

Guillain-Barre syndrome often begins with tingling and weakness starting in your feet and legs and spreading to your upper body and arms. Some people notice the first symptoms in the arms or face. As Guillain-Barre syndrome progresses, muscle weakness can turn into paralysis.

● A pins and needles sensation in your fingers, toes, ankles or wrists
Weakness in your legs that spreads to your upper body.
● Unsteady walking or inability to walk or climb stairs.
● Difficulty with facial movements, including speaking, chewing or swallowing.
● Double vision or inability to move the eyesSevere pain that may feel achy, shooting or cramplike and may be worse at night.
● Difficulty with bladder control or bowel function.
● Rapid heart rate.
● Low or high blood pressure.
● Difficulty breathing
● People with Guillain-Barre syndrome usually experience their most significant weakness within two weeks after symptoms begin.

● Guillain-Barre syndrome can affect all age groups, but your risk increases as you age. It's also slightly more common in males than females.
● Guillain-Barre syndrome may be triggered by:
● Most commonly, infection with campylobacter, a type of bacteria often found in undercooked poultry.
● Influenza virus
● Cytomegalovirus
● Epstein-Barr virus
● Zika virus
● Hepatitis A, B, C and E
● HIV, the virus that causes AIDS
● Mycoplasma pneumonia
● Surgery
● Trauma
● Hodgkin's lymphoma

Guillain-Barre syndrome affects your nerves. Because nerves control your movements and body functions, people with Guillain-Barre may experience:


Breathing difficulties: The weakness or paralysis can spread to the muscles that control your breathing, a potentially fatal complication. Up to 22% of people with Guillain-Barre syndrome need temporary help from a machine to breathe within the first week when they're hospitalized for treatment.

Residual numbness or other sensations: Most people with Guillain-Barre syndrome recover completely or have only minor, residual weakness, numbness or tingling.

Heart and blood pressure problems: Blood pressure fluctuations and irregular heart rhythms (cardiac arrhythmias) are common side effects of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Pain: One-third of people with Guillain-Barre syndrome experience severe nerve pain, which may be eased with medication.

Bowel and bladder function problems: Sluggish bowel function and urine retention may result from Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Blood clots: People who are immobile due to Guillain-Barre syndrome are at risk of developing blood clots. Until you're able to walk independently, taking blood thinners and wearing support stockings may be recommended.

Pressure sores: Being immobile also puts you at risk of developing bedsores (pressure sores). Frequent repositioning may help avoid this problem.

Relapse: A small percentage of people with Guillain-Barre syndrome have a relapse, experiencing muscle weakness even years after the symptoms ended.